e`;[{y; gyhfh Njtthf;fpakh? my;yJ
,yf;fpag; gilg;gh?

E}y; tpku;rdk; :
fyhepjp. A+.vy;.V. m\;ug; (Ph.D.Al-Azhar)

,];yhkpa tuyhw;wpy; ,lk;ngw;w ,uz;L gLnfhiyfs; ,];yhkpa rpe;jidapy; gy cl;gpupTfs; Njhd;w ,lkspj;jd. mitfs;> fyPgh c];khd; (wop) mtu;fs; Gul;rpf;fhuu;fshy; nfhy;yg;gl;lJk;> `_i]d; (wop) mtu;fs; cikah Ml;rpahsu;fshy; nfhy;yg;gl;lJk; MFk;.

me;j cl;gpupTfspy; \PM gpuptpdu; gpujhdkhdtu;fshFk;. ,g;gpuptpdu; myp (wop)mtu;fspd; Nerk;> egpatu;fspd; FLk;gj;jpdu; kPJ md;G vd;w nfhbiaj; J}f;fpg; gpbj;jdu;. \PM thjk; myp (wop) mtu;fis  Nerpg;gjhf Muk;gpj;J> gpd;G c];khd; (wop) mtu;fistpl myp (wop) mtu;fs; rpwe;jtu; vd gupzhkk; ngw;W> fhyNthl;lj;jpy; myp (wop) mtu;fs;> mG+gf;u; (wop)> cku; (wop) MfpNahu;fis tplr; rpwe;jtu; vd;w epiyf;F \PM rpe;jid tpfhukile;jJ.

myp (wop) mtu;fSk;> KMtpah (wop) mtu;fSf;Fkpilapy;> c];khd; (wop) mtu;fs; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l tptfhuj;jpy; ru;r;ir Vw;gl;lJ. KMtpah mtu;fs;> Kjypy; nfhiyahspfs; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;L jz;bf;fg;gl;l Ntz;Lk;> gpd;G ,];yhkpa rhk;uh[;aj;Jf;F [dhjpgjp njupT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w epiyg;ghl;by; ,Ue;jhu;fs;. Mdhy;> c];khd; (wop) mtu;fis nfhiy nra;j fpsu;r;rpahsu;fshy; [dhjpgjpahf epakpf;fg;gl;l myp mtu;fs;> jd;id Kjypy; [dhjpgjpahf mq;fPfupf;FkhWk;> gpd;G nfhiyahspfis ,dq;fz;L jz;bg;gjhfTk; $wpdhu;fs;.

,k;Kuz;ghL> cs;ehl;L Aj;jkhfntbj;jJ. ,];yhkpa rhk;uh[;a tp];jupg;ig Klf;fp> \PMf;fs; ,t;turpay; ru;r;iria <khdpa ru;r;irahf khw;wp> myp mtu;fspd; vjpuzpapy; ,ize;j ]`hghf;fis fhgpu;fs; vd;w gLgaq;fu jPu;g;ig toq;fp ,khkj; rpe;jidia <khdpd; mbg;gilahf gpufldg;gLj;jpdhu;fs;.

\PMf;fs; mtu;fspd; mjpjPtpu Nghf;fpd; xU fl;lkhf \PMf;fSf;F myp mtu;fspd; kPJs;s ntwp> mtu;fSf;F (العصمة) ,];kj; (jtW nra;tjpypUe;J ghJfhf;fg;gl;ltu;fs;) vd;w me;j];j;ij toq;fpdhu;fs;. ,jdhy; mtu;fspd; thu;j;ijfSf;F nja;tPfj; jd;ikia toq;fpdhu;fs;.

jq;fsJ topNfLfis epahag;gLj;j myp mtu;fs; kPJ ngha;ahd `jP];fis ,l;Lf; fl;bdhu;fs;. jdJ nfhs;ifia epahag;gLj;j ngha;ia fUtpahfg; gad;gLj;j KbAk; vd;gJ \PMf;fspd; mbg;gilfspy; xd;whFk;. ,jid jfpa;ah  (التقية)vd miof;fpd;wdu;. ngha;j; jfty;fisg; gug;Gk; xU mq;fkhf> e`;[{y; gyhfh vd;w E}iy vOjpdhu;fs;.


e`;[{y; gyh`h E}y; mwpKfk;

gf;jhijr; Nru;e;j> `p[;up 436,y; kuzpj;j Ku;joh vd;gtu; e`;[{y; gyh`h vd;w E}iyj; njhFj;jhu;. ,jpy; myp (wop) mtu;fspd; tha;nkhopfis xd;Wjpul;bAs;shu;. ,e;E}iy \PMf;fs; jq;fsJ mbg;gil E}yhff; fzpf;fpd;wdu;. Maj;Jy;yh`; Fikdp> ,ij thrpf;Fk;gb typAWj;jpAs;shu;. \PM nfhs;ifAilatuhd ,tu; K/j]pyh vd;w ,];yhkpa gFj;jwpTthjpfspd; rpe;jidahYk; ftug;gl;bUe;jhu;. \PM rpe;jid 218,y; kuzpj;j `p\hk; gpd; my;-`fk; vd;gtupd; ,iwtDf;F rlk; cz;L vd;w topNfl;il Vw;Wf; nfhz;L fhyNthl;lj;jpy; K/j]pyhf;fspd; rpe;jidf;F mbikahfptpl;lJ. vdNt> Ku;joh K/j]pyh nfhs;ifAilatu; vd;gjpy; vt;tpj Mr;rupaKk; ,y;iy.

Ku;joh> mtuJ Eiy %d;W mj;jpahaq;fshf gpupj;jhu;. mit>

KjyhtJ mj;jpahak; : myp (wop) mtu;fspd; NgUiufs;> Nghjidfs;.
,uz;lhtJ mj;jpahak; : kly;fs;> fbjq;fs;
%d;whtJ mj;jpahak;  : jj;Jtq;fs;> nghd;nkhopfs;.

,e;E}Yf;F `p[;up 656,y; kuzpj;j K/j]pyh nfhs;ifahsuhfpa ,g;D mgpy; `jPj; ( ابن أبي الحديد) vd;gtu; tpupthd tpupTiu xd;iw vOjpAs;shu;.


e`;[{y; gyh`h ek;gfj; jd;ik mw;wJ vd;gjw;Fupa epahaq;fs;

myp (wop) mtu;fspd; tha;nkhopfis xd;W Nru;j;Js;s e`;[{y; gyh`h vd;w E}y; ek;gfj; jd;ik mw;wJ> mitfspy; ngUk;ghydit ngha; vd;gj w;Fupa epahaq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:
1.   ,e;E}ypy; fhzg;gLk; mwptpg;GfSf;F mwptpg;ghsu; njhlu; ( الإسناد) Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy. E}yhrpupau; Ku;joh mtu;fSf;Fk;> myp (wop)mtu;fSf;Fk; ,ilapy; Fiwe;jJ 7 mwptpg;ghsu;fs; fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; Ku;joh vt;tpj mwptpg;ghsu; njhliuAk; Kd;itf;ftpy;iy. mwptpg;ghsu; njhlu; mw;w egp nkhopiaNah my;yJ ]`hgpapd; $w;iwNah xU fhyKk; Mjhukhf vLj;Jf; nfhs;s KbahJ.
2.   ,e;E}ypy; fhzg;gLk; myp mtu;fspd; nkhopfs;> ,jw;F Kd;Gs;s mwptpg;ghsu; njhlUs;s fpue;jq;fspy; fhzf;fpilf;ftpy;iy. ,J Nkw;gb mypnkhopfs; ,l;Lf; fl;lg;gl;l ngha; vd;gjw;F xU rhd;whFk;.
3.   E}yhrpupau; Ku;joh `jP];fiy mwpQu; my;yu;. khwhf mtu; jdJ E}ypy; jhdhfNt ngha;f; fijfis fl;btpl;lhu; vdf; Fw;wr;rhl;lg;gl;Ls;shu;.
4.  Ku;joh> NtW mwpQu;fspd; nghd;nkhopfis myp mtu;fs; $wpajhf jpupj;J vOjpAs;shu;.
5.   e`;[{y; gyh`htpy; myp mtu;fs; %j;j ]`hghf;fis jpl;b VrpapUg;jhf $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. xU fhyKk; mtu; ,g;ght fhupaj;ij nra;jpUf;f KbahJ. rhjhuz K];ypKf;Ff; $l nghUj;jkpy;yhj ,r; nraiy xU %j;j ]`hgp nra;jpUf;f KbahJ.
6.   [h`py; ( الحاحظ) vd;w ,yf;fpathjp my;gahd; tj;jg;aPd; (البيان والتبيين )vd;w E}ypy; fhzg;gl;l nghd;nkhopfis> Ku;joh> mitfis myp mtu;fs; $wpajhf jpupTgLj;jpAs;shu;.
7.   e`;[{y; gyhfhtpy; fhzg;gLk; myp mtu;fspd; thf;fpaq;fspd; nkhop eil Fiw\; tk;rj;jpdupd; nkhop eilia tpl;Lk; NtWgl;bUf;fpd;wJ. mit gpw;fhyj;jpy; Njhd;wpa nkhop eiliaNa xj;jpUf;fpd;wd. ,it Gidag;gl;l nghd; nkhopfs; vd;gij ep&gpf;fpd;wd.
8.   ,e;E}ypy; Kd;Df;Fg; gpd; Kuzhd thu;j;ijfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
9.   ,iwtdpd; jd;ikfs; gw;wpa K/j]pyhf;fspd; epiyg;ghl;il> myp mtu;fspd; epiyg;ghlhf ,e;E}ypy; Ku;joh khw;wp mikj;Js;shu;. ,JTk; e`;[{y; gyh`h Nghyp E}y; vd;gjw;Fr; rhd;whFk;.



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